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by Rosso Michel - published on

Spectroscopic characterizations: ATR- FTIR (« attenuated total reflection ») using a beveled prism of silicon to investigate surface chemistry at the solid / electrolyte interface and other environments. One specific spectrometer was built and two commercial instruments modified for in situ characterizations.
Scanning probe microscopy: In situ STM to investigate the morphology and reactivity of electrochemical interfaces. Recent developments allow fast STM imaging (a few images per second). AFM: mostly used ex situ to characterize surfaces in contact or non-contact mode. Conductivity and MFM are available). The electrochemical nanolithography was implemented on a modified commercial AFM.
Structural characterizations: X-ray diffraction and reflectivity of thin layers with a high resolution 4-circle custom x-ray bench. In situ characterizations are conducted at Synchrotron radiation sources (ESRF, SOLEIL).
Magnetic characterizations using magneto optical Kerr effect: We perform in situ real time characterizations to determine the magnetic properties of growing ultrathin layers. Web also investigate magnetoelectric coupling. In collaboration with our partner at IEF (Orsay), we develop in situ MOKE imaging.
Electrochemical nanolithography: This technique allows nanostructuring in one single step and without application of a mask a metallic film by application of very short voltage pulses between a conductive AFM tip and the surface. A 4-electrode cell is used.
Electrochemical characterizations: voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, RDE, QCMB.
PECVD: a custom deposition chamber is designed to grow amorphous silicon and carbonated amorphous silicon layers. The power density is typically 0.1^{-2}. Deposition is performed at 250°C with a pressure of 35 mTorr and a gas flow of 2L/h.
Biochips: Two spotters are available. One is spotting without contact to the surface (Arrayjet Sprint Microarrayer (V ≈ pL); the other is spotting with contact to the surface (BioRobotics MicroGrid II (V ≈ nL). Fluorescence is measured with a DiagArray scanner and a Hyblive imaging system (Genewave) is used to measure fluorescence in situ and in real time.